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Author Tung-Thompson, G.; Escudero-Abarca, B.I.; Outlaw, J.; Ganee, A.; Cassard, S.; Mabilat, C.; Jaykus, L.-A. doi  openurl
  Title (up) Evaluation of a Surface Sampling Method for Recovery of Human Noroviruses Prior to Detection Using Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Type Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of food protection Abbreviated Journal J Food Prot  
  Volume 80 Issue 2 Pages 231-236  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address Department of Food Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA  
  Keywords Caliciviridae Infections/*virology; Feces/virology; Gastroenteritis/epidemiology; Humans; Norovirus/*genetics; North Carolina; RNA, Viral; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Reverse Transcription; *Norovirus; *Sampling; *Surfaces; *Wipes  
  Abstract Human noroviruses are the most common cause of acute viral gastroenteritis, and the environmental persistence of these viruses contributes to their transmissibility. Environmental sampling is thus an important tool for investigating norovirus outbreaks and for assessing the effectiveness of cleaning and decontamination regimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a sampling material (wipes) for their efficacy at recovering human norovirus from hard surfaces and foods. Dilutions of a human norovirus GII.4 stool specimen derived from an outbreak were applied to hard surfaces (stainless steel and ceramic) and the surfaces of representative foods (green pepper, apple, tomato, and cheese). The viruses were recovered at various times postinoculation using the wipes, followed by RNA extraction and reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Recovery efficiency ranged from 74% to almost 100% for all artificially inoculated hard surfaces and for most fresh produce surfaces. Less efficient recovery was observed for cheese. Viral RNA could be recovered from select surfaces for up to 7 days postinoculation, with a <1 log reduction in genome copy number. In field tests, 24 (11%) of 210 environmental samples collected during winter 2012 from restrooms in North Carolina were presumptively positive for human norovirus, and six of these samples were confirmed as GII.4 by sequencing. These wipes may be a valuable tool for investigations of norovirus outbreaks and studies of norovirus prevalence.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0362-028X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28221974 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3652  
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