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Author Maunula, L.; Ronnqvist, M.; Aberg, R.; Lunden, J.; Nevas, M. doi  openurl
  Title The Presence of Norovirus and Adenovirus on Environmental Surfaces in Relation to the Hygienic Level in Food Service Operations Associated with a Suspected Gastroenteritis Outbreak Type Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Food and environmental virology Abbreviated Journal Food Environ Virol  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages 334-341  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address The Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, Agnes Sjoberginkatu 2, 00014, Helsinki, Finland  
  Keywords Adenoviridae/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology/*virology; Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology/*virology; Disease Outbreaks; Finland/epidemiology; Food Contamination/analysis; Food Handling/*instrumentation/standards; Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology/virology; Gastroenteritis/epidemiology/*virology; Humans; Hygiene/standards; Norovirus/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; Restaurants/standards; *AdV; *Environmental sampling; *Food service operation; *Foodborne outbreak; *Hygiene inspection; *NoV  
  Abstract Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks appear frequently in food service operations (FSOs), such as in restaurants and canteens. In this study the presence of NoV and adenovirus (AdV) genomes was investigated on the surfaces of premises, especially in kitchens, of 30 FSOs where foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks were suspected. The objective was to establish a possible association between the presence of virus genomes on surfaces and a visual hygienic status of the FSOs. NoV genome was found in 11 and AdV genome in 8 out of 30 FSOs. In total, 291 swabs were taken, of which 8.9% contained NoV and 5.8% AdV genome. The presence of NoV genomes on the surfaces was not found to associate with lower hygiene level of the premises when based on visual inspection; most (7/9) of the FSOs with NoV contamination on surfaces and a completed evaluation form had a good hygiene level (the best category). Restaurants had a significantly lower proportion of NoV-positive swabs compared to other FSOs (canteens, cafeteria, schools etc.) taken together (p = 0.00014). The presence of a designated break room for the workers was found to be significantly more common in AdV-negative kitchens (p = 0.046). Our findings suggest that swabbing is necessary for revealing viral contamination of surfaces and emphasis of hygiene inspections should be on the food handling procedures, and the education of food workers on virus transmission.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1867-0334 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28299601 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3603  
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