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Author Matsuyama, R.; Miura, F.; Nishiura, H. doi  openurl
  Title The transmissibility of noroviruses: Statistical modeling of outbreak events with known route of transmission in Japan Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages e0173996  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8, Honcho, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama, Japan  
  Keywords Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology/*transmission/virology; Disease Outbreaks; Humans; Japan/epidemiology; *Models, Statistical; Norovirus/*isolation & purification  
  Abstract In Japan, the fraction of norovirus outbreaks attributable to human-to-human transmission has increased with time, and the timing of the increased fraction has coincided with the increase in the observed fraction of genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4). The present study aimed to estimate the time-dependent changes in the transmissibility of noroviruses. The effective reproduction number (Ry), for year y, was estimated by analyzing the time series surveillance data for outbreak events from 2000 to 2016. Ry was estimated by using the fraction of outbreak events that were attributable to human-to-human transmission and by employing three different statistical models that are considered to mechanistically capture the possible data-generating process in different ways. The Ry estimates ranged from 0.14 to 4.15 in value, revealing an overall increasing trend (p<0.05 for all three models). The proportion of outbreaks caused by GII and GII.4 viruses among the total events also increased with time, and positive correlations were identified between transmissibility and these proportions. Parametric modeling of Ry indicated that the time-dependent patterns of Ry were better described by a step function plus linear trend rather than the step function alone that reflects the widespread use of reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in and after 2007 for laboratory diagnosis. Accordingly, we conclude that norovirus transmissibility has increased over the past 16 years in Japan. The change is at least partially explained by the time-dependent domination of the contagious GII genogroup (e.g., GII.4), indicating that noroviruses better fitted to humans have selectively caused the human-to-human transmissions, thereby altering the epidemiology of this pathogen.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title (up)  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28296972 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3601  
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