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Author Lacombe, A.; Niemira, B.A.; Gurtler, J.B.; Sites, J.; Boyd, G.; Kingsley, D.H.; Li, X.; Chen, H. doi  openurl
  Title Nonthermal inactivation of norovirus surrogates on blueberries using atmospheric cold plasma Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Food microbiology Abbreviated Journal Food Microbiol  
  Volume (down) 63 Issue Pages 1-5  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, 020 Townsend Hall, Newark, DE 19716, USA  
  Keywords Animals; Blueberry Plants/*virology; Caliciviridae/*physiology; Food Microbiology; Food Safety/methods; Humans; Mice; Norovirus/*physiology; *Plasma Gases; *Temperature; Viral Plaque Assay; *Virus Inactivation; *Blueberries; *Cold plasma; *Food safety; *Inactivation; *Norovirus; *Surrogate  
  Abstract Viruses are currently the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks, most of which are associated with foods consumed raw. Cold plasma (CP) is an emerging novel nonthermal technology that can be used to surface decontaminate foods. This study investigated CP technology for the nonthermal inactivation of human norovirus surrogates, Tulane virus (TV) and murine norovirus (MNV), on the surface of blueberries. Blueberries (5 g) were weighed into sterile 4 oz. glass jars and inoculated with TV, 5 log PFU/g. Samples were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 s at a working distance of 7.5 cm with 4 cubic feet/minute (cfm) of CP jet. Temperature readings were taken with an infrared camera prior to, and immediately following, CP treatments. In order to establish the impact of air flow during CP treatment (4 cfm), an additional 7 cfm jet of room temperature air was introduced from a separate nozzle. The experiment was repeated with 90 and 120 s as additional treatment time points. Viral titers were measured immediately after each treatment with a plaque assay using LLC-MK2 cells (TV) or RAW 264.7 cells (MNV). TV was significantly reduced 1.5 PFU/g compared to the control after treatment time of 45s, which was achieved regardless of temperature conditions. With the addition of 7 cfm of ambient air, the maximum log reduction for TV was 3.5 log PFU/g after 120s of treatment. MNV was significantly reduced by 0.5 log PFU/g compare to the control at 15s, and further treatment of MNV with ambient air brought the log reduction to greater than 5 log PFU/g at 90 s of treatment (Fig. 3). These results demonstrate that CP viral inactivation does not rely on thermal inactivation, and is therefore nonthermal in nature. With further optimization, CP may be used by food processors as a means of nonthermal inactivation of foodborne viruses.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0740-0020 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28040155 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3589  
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