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Author Johnson, J.A.; Parra, G.I.; Levenson, E.A.; Green, K.Y. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, 1972 revisited: evidence for common source exposure to a recombinant GII.Pg/GII.3 norovirus Type Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  Year 2017 Publication Epidemiology and infection Abbreviated Journal Epidemiol Infect  
  Volume 145 Issue 8 Pages 1591-1596  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address Caliciviruses Section,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health,Bethesda, MD,USA  
  Keywords Acute Disease; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Caliciviridae Infections/*epidemiology/virology; *Disease Outbreaks; Gastroenteritis/*epidemiology/virology; Humans; Middle Aged; Norovirus/genetics/*physiology; Pennsylvania/epidemiology; Young Adult; *Norwalk agent and related viruses; *caliciviruses; *gastroenteritis; *noroviruses  
  Abstract Historical outbreaks can be an important source of information in the understanding of norovirus evolution and epidemiology. Here, we revisit an outbreak of undiagnosed gastroenteritis that occurred in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania in 1972. Nearly 5000 people fell ill over the course of 10 days. Symptoms included diarrhea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and fever, lasting for a median of 24 h. Using current techniques, including next-generation sequencing of full-length viral genomic amplicons, we identified an unusual norovirus recombinant (GII.Pg/GII.3) in nine of 15 available stool samples from the outbreak. This particular recombinant virus has not been reported in recent decades, although GII.3 and GII.Pg genotypes have been detected individually in current epidemic strains. The consensus nucleotide sequences were nearly identical among the four viral genomes analysed, although each strain had three to seven positions in the genome with heterogenous non-synonymous nucleotide subpopulations. Two of these resulting amino acid polymorphisms were conserved in frequency among all four cases, consistent with common source exposure and successful transmission of a mixed viral population. Continued investigation of variant nucleotide populations and recombination events among ancestral norovirus strains such as the Shippensburg virus may provide unique insight into the origin of contemporary strains.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0950-2688 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28294087 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3573  
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