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Author Hodgson, K.R.; Torok, V.A.; Turnbull, A.R. doi  openurl
  Title Bacteriophages as enteric viral indicators in bivalve mollusc management Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Food microbiology Abbreviated Journal Food Microbiol  
  Volume 65 Issue Pages 284-293  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address South Australian Research and Development Institute, G.P.O Box 397, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001, Australia. Electronic address:  
  Keywords Animals; Bivalvia/*virology; Coliphages/growth & development/*isolation & purification; Enterovirus/physiology; Enterovirus Infections/*prevention & control/transmission/virology; Environmental Monitoring/methods; Feces/virology; Food Safety; Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control/virology; Humans; Male; Sewage/virology; Shellfish/*virology; *Water Microbiology; Water Pollution; Bacteriophage; Food safety; Indicator; Sewage; Shellfish; Virus  
  Abstract Human enteric viruses, such as norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are spread by a variety of routes including faecal-oral transmission. Contaminated bivalve shellfish are regularly implicated in foodborne viral disease outbreaks internationally. Traditionally indicator bacteria, the coliforms and Escherichia coli, have been used to detect faecal pollution in growing waters and shellfish. However, studies have established that they are inadequate as indicators of the risk of human enteric viruses. Bacteriophages have been identified as potential indicators or surrogates for human enteric viruses due to their similarities in morphology, behaviour in water environments and resistance to disinfectant treatments. The somatic coliphages, male-specific RNA coliphages (FRNA coliphages) and the bacteriophages of Bacteroides are the groups recognised as most suitable for water and shellfish testing. In this review, we discuss the rationale and supporting evidence for the application of bacteriophages as surrogates for human enteric viruses in shellfish under a variety of conditions. There is some evidence to support the validity of using bacteriophage levels to indicate viral risk in shellfish in highly contaminated sites and following adverse sewage events.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0740-0020 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28400015 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3563  
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