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Author Deng, W.; Gibson, K.E. doi  openurl
  Title Interaction of microorganisms within leafy green phyllospheres: Where do human noroviruses fit in? Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication International journal of food microbiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Food Microbiol  
  Volume 258 Issue Pages 28-37  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA. Electronic address: keg005@uark.edu  
  Keywords Bacteria/growth & development; Binding Sites; Disease Outbreaks; Foodborne Diseases/*virology; Fungi/growth & development; Humans; Norovirus/*physiology; Plant Leaves/*microbiology/*virology; *Virus Attachment; Binding; Human norovirus; Leafy greens; Microbe-microbe interactions; Norovirus surrogates; Phyllosphere  
  Abstract Human noroviruses (hNoV) are one of the major causes of foodborne disease outbreaks linked to leafy greens. However, the interactions-including attachment and persistence-of hNoV with leafy greens are not well characterized. In the present review, three mechanisms are hypothesized for the interaction of hNoV with leafy green phyllospheres: 1) specific binding to histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like carbohydrates exposed on leaf surfaces and present on bacterial microbiota; 2) non-specific binding through electrostatic forces; and 3) internalization of hNoV through contaminated water (e.g. hydroponic feed water). To add more complexity, there is a rich diversity of microbial communities (i.e., bacteria, fungi, protozoa) residing in leafy green phyllospheres, and the attachment and persistence of hNoV could be largely impacted by these microorganisms through direct and indirect interactions. For instance, enzymes produced by bacteria and fungi could potentially compromise the structure of HBGA-like carbohydrate binding sites on leaves, leading to a reduction in hNoV binding. On the other hand, some bacteria also possess HBGA-like binding sites on their cell surface, which may provide extra binding locations for hNoV. There are also numerous metabolic compounds that can be produced by leafy greens and its microbial inhabitants and be subsequently distributed within leafy green phyllospheres. These compounds could theoretically play roles in enhancement or reduction in the attachment of hNoV. Overall, increasing the understanding of the various types of hNoV attachment and interactions with leafy green phyllospheres will be crucial for elucidating hNoV transmission via leafy greens as well as for the development of effective control measures.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1605 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28755583 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3536  
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