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Author Cannon, J.L.; Barclay, L.; Collins, N.R.; Wikswo, M.E.; Castro, C.J.; Magana, L.C.; Gregoricus, N.; Marine, R.L.; Chhabra, P.; Vinje, J. doi  openurl
  Title Genetic and Epidemiologic Trends of Norovirus Outbreaks in the United States from 2013 to 2016 Demonstrated Emergence of Novel GII.4 Recombinant Viruses Type Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of clinical microbiology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Microbiol  
  Volume (down) 55 Issue 7 Pages 2208-2221  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA jvinje@cdc.gov  
  Keywords Caliciviridae Infections/*epidemiology; Capsid Proteins/genetics; *Disease Outbreaks; *Genotype; Humans; Molecular Epidemiology; Norovirus/*classification/*genetics/isolation & purification; RNA Replicase/genetics; United States/epidemiology; *genetic recombination; *genotypic identification; *noroviruses  
  Abstract Noroviruses are the most frequent cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis in the United States. Between September 2013 and August 2016, 2,715 genotyped norovirus outbreaks were submitted to CaliciNet. GII.4 Sydney viruses caused 58% of the outbreaks during these years. A GII.4 Sydney virus with a novel GII.P16 polymerase emerged in November 2015, causing 60% of all GII.4 outbreaks in the 2015-2016 season. Several genotypes detected were associated with more than one polymerase type, including GI.3, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4 Sydney, GII.13, and GII.17, four of which harbored GII.P16 polymerases. GII.P16 polymerase sequences associated with GII.2 and GII.4 Sydney viruses were nearly identical, suggesting common ancestry. Other common genotypes, each causing 5 to 17% of outbreaks in a season, included GI.3, GI.5, GII.2, GII.3, GII.6, GII.13, and GII.17 Kawasaki 308. Acquisition of alternative RNA polymerases by recombination is an important mechanism for norovirus evolution and a phenomenon that was shown to occur more frequently than previously recognized in the United States. Continued molecular surveillance of noroviruses, including typing of both polymerase and capsid genes, is important for monitoring emerging strains in our continued efforts to reduce the overall burden of norovirus disease.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0095-1137 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28490488 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3514  
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