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Author Raj, P.; Tay, J.; Ang, L.W.; Tien, W.S.; Thu, M.; Lee, P.; Pang, Q.Y.; Tang, Y.L.; Lee, K.Y.; Maurer-Stroh, S.; Gunalan, V.; Cutter, J.; Goh, K.T. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis in a hotel in Singapore, 2012 Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Epidemiology and infection Abbreviated Journal Epidemiol Infect  
  Volume 145 Issue 3 Pages 535-544  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address National University of Singapore,Singapore  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aerobiosis; Aged; Caliciviridae Infections/*epidemiology; Case-Control Studies; Child; Child, Preschool; *Disease Outbreaks; Environmental Microbiology; Escherichia coli; Feces/virology; Female; Food Contamination; Gastroenteritis/*epidemiology/*virology; Humans; Infant; Male; Middle Aged; Norovirus/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; Norwalk virus; Singapore/epidemiology; Young Adult; Common source; crockery; cutlery; epidemiological investigation; norovirus  
  Abstract An outbreak of gastroenteritis affected 453 attendees (attack rate 28.5%) of six separate events held at a hotel in Singapore. Active case detection, case-control studies, hygiene inspections and microbial analysis of food, environmental and stool samples were conducted to determine the aetiology of the outbreak and the modes of transmission. The only commonality was the food, crockery and cutlery provided and/or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen. Stool specimens from 34 cases and 15 food handlers were positive for norovirus genogroup II. The putative index case was one of eight norovirus-positive food handlers who had worked while they were symptomatic. Several food samples and remnants tested positive for Escherichia coli or high faecal coliforms, aerobic plate counts and/or total coliforms, indicating poor food hygiene. This large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis was caused by the consumption of contaminated food and/or contact with contaminated crockery or cutlery provided or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0950-2688 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27788694 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3451  
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