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Author Oristo, S.; Ronnqvist, M.; Aho, M.; Sovijarvi, A.; Hannila-Handelberg, T.; Horman, A.; Nikkari, S.; Kinnunen, P.M.; Maunula, L. doi  openurl
  Title Contamination by Norovirus and Adenovirus on Environmental Surfaces and in Hands of Conscripts in Two Finnish Garrisons Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Food and environmental virology Abbreviated Journal Food Environ Virol  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 62-71  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Agnes Sjobergin katu 2, 00790, Helsinki, Finland  
  Keywords Adenoviridae/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology/*virology; Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology/*virology; Disease Outbreaks; Feces/virology; Finland; Gastroenteritis/epidemiology/*virology; Hand/*virology; Humans; Male; Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data; Norovirus/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; Adenovirus; Environmental contamination; Gastroenteritis; Norovirus; Questionnaire; Surface swab  
  Abstract This study investigated the presence of norovirus and adenovirus, especially enteric adenovirus, on the environmental surfaces (n = 481) and military conscripts' hands (n = 109) in two Finnish garrisons (A and B) in 2013 and 2014. A questionnaire study was conducted to reveal possible correlations between viral findings on the conscripts' hands and their acute gastroenteritis symptoms. In addition to the swab samples, 14 fecal samples were obtained for viral analysis. In total, norovirus was present in 9.0 % of the surface swabs in 2013, whereas enteric adenovirus was present in 0.0 % and non-enteric adenovirus in 9.4 %. In the same year, 2.6 % of the hand swabs contained norovirus, 2.6 % enteric adenovirus, and 40.3 % non-enteric adenovirus. Norovirus GI.6 was continually detected on the surfaces of garrison A, and identical virus was detected in some of the fecal samples. In garrison B, two slightly different norovirus GII.4 strains were present on the surfaces. The questionnaires revealed no recent acute gastroenteritis cases in garrison A, but in garrison B, where the norovirus-positive hand swabs were collected, 30.6 % of the conscripts reported of recent symptoms. In 2014, norovirus was rarely detected, but adenovirus was again frequently present, both on the surfaces and hands. Taken together, our results suggest that gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred in 2013, but not in 2014. Due to the low number of hand swabs positive for enteric viruses, no conclusions about associations between viral findings and gastroenteritis symptoms could be drawn. This study increased our understanding of the possible transmission of viruses via contaminated environment and hands.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1867-0334 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27696180 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3444  
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