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Author (up) Campos, C.J.A.; Kershaw, S.; Morgan, O.C.; Lees, D.N. doi  openurl
  Title Risk factors for norovirus contamination of shellfish water catchments in England and Wales Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International journal of food microbiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Food Microbiol  
  Volume 241 Issue Pages 318-324  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Aquatic Health and Hygiene Division, Food Safety Group, Weymouth Laboratory, UK  
  Keywords Animals; England; Escherichia coli/genetics/isolation & purification; Food Contamination/analysis; Humans; Norovirus/genetics/*isolation & purification; Ostreidae/*virology; Risk Factors; Rivers/*virology; Shellfish/*virology; Wales; Water Pollution; *Oysters; *River flow; *Sewage; *Stormwater; *Temperature  
  Abstract This study examines the relationships between concentrations of human noroviruses (NoV) genogroups I (GI) and II (GII) and Escherichia coli monitored in oysters from 31 commercial harvesting areas on the coast of England and Wales from May 2009 to April 2011 and demographic, hydrometric, climatic and pollution source characteristics of upstream river catchments using multiple regression techniques. The predictive environmental factors for E. coli contamination in the oysters were rainfall (cumulative 7days before sampling) while the predictive factors for NoV (GI+GII) were water temperature, catchment area and the combined volume of continuous sewage discharges in the catchment. Oysters from cold waters (<5 degrees C) had significantly higher NoV content than those from warmer waters (>10 degrees C). The association with water temperature may be consequential on the seasonal prevalence of the virus in the community or linked with oyster metabolic function. In a group of 10 study sites, mean concentrations of NoV increased as the number of stormwater spills at those sites also increased. The results of this study could be used to evaluate the likely impact of sewerage infrastructure improvements in catchments at risk of NoV contamination and to help identify sites suitable for shellfish farming.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1605 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27837721 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3372  
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