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Author (up) Arthur, S.E.; Gibson, K.E. doi  openurl
  Title Physicochemical stability profile of Tulane virus: a human norovirus surrogate Type Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of applied microbiology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Microbiol  
  Volume 119 Issue 3 Pages 868-875  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Address Department of Food Science, Center for Food Safety, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA  
  Keywords Caliciviridae Infections/virology; Chlorine/pharmacology; Disinfection/*methods; Hot Temperature; Humans; Norovirus/*chemistry/classification/drug effects/*physiology; Tulane virus; disinfectants; norovirus; surrogates; thermal inactivation  
  Abstract AIMS: Human norovirus (HuNoV) is estimated to cause 19-21 million illnesses each year in the US. A major limitation in HuNoV research is the lack of an in vitro culture system; therefore, surrogate viruses including murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV) are used to study HuNoV. Here, we aim to establish the physiochemical properties of Tulane virus (TV)-a newer HuNoV surrogate. METHODS AND RESULTS: For thermal inactivation, TV was exposed to 37 degrees C for 2 h, and 56, 63 and 72 degrees C for 30 min. For ethanol tolerance, TV was treated with 60, 70 and 90% ethanol at room temperature (RT) for 5 min. Tulane virus pH stability at pH 2, 3, 7, 9 and 10 was performed at RT for 90 min. At 37 degrees C, there was no significant reduction in TV after 2 h. However, at 56, 63 and 72 degrees C, D-values of 4.03, 1.18, and 0.24 min, were calculated respectively. The D-values obtained for TV ethanol tolerance were 1.46, 1.93, and 0.35 min at 60, 70 and 90% respectively. Less than 1 log10 plaque forming units (PFU) reduction was observed for TV at all pH levels except pH 10 where about a 2-log10 PFU reduction was observed. Tulane virus was also tolerant to chlorine disinfection on a solid surface with D-values of 15.82 and 5.42 min at 200 and 1000 ppm respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tulane virus is likely a suitable surrogate to study HuNoV thermal stability as well as ethanol tolerance below 90%. Tulane virus also is a promising surrogate to study HuNoV pH stability and chlorine tolerance. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Based on current work, in vitro studies demonstrate that TV is an overall more conservative and suitable surrogate for the study of HuNoV physicochemical properties.  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1364-5072 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26104882 Approved no  
  Call Number NCSU @ edshirle @ Serial 3228  
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